Docking and castrating
Docking is when the tail is shortened. Castration is when the
testicles are removed or their function is inhibited. Both are
routine management practices on most sheep farms in the United States and other developed countries. According to
a 2002 USDA Animal Health Survey, 91.7 percent of lambs
are docked and 77.4 percent of ram lambs are castrated in the United States.
Docking improves the health and welfare of sheep and lambs. It
prevents fecal matter from accumulating on the tail and hindquarters
of the animal. Research has shown that tail docking greatly reduces
fly strike (wool maggots), while having no ill effect on lamb
mortality or production.
Docking facilitates shearing. Not
many sheep shearers want to shear sheep with long tails.
Docking makes it easier to observe the ewe's udder and detect potential problems.
Some markets (lamb buyers) discriminate against tailed lambs, since having
a tail lowers the dressing percent (yield) of the lamb and removal of the tail during processing requires extra labor. On the other hand, ethnic buyers of
lambs often prefer undocked lambs. For the Muslim Festival of
Sacrifice, unblemished lambs are often preferred for harvest.
An unblemished lamb is one that has not been docked, castrated,
or had its horns removed.
Not all sheep require tail docking. Because hair sheep lambs do
not have long, wooly tails, it is usually not necessary to shorten their tails. Lambs
from the Northern European short-tail breeds also do not require
docking. Fat-tailed sheep are usually not docked. Some producers
of wooled lambs do not dock their lambs or they only dock the
Sheep breeds that generally do not require tail docking
The sheep's tail does not interfere with breeding. It protects the vulva and udder from weather extremes. To some extent, sheep use their tail to scatter their feces.
The easiest and most common method of tail docking is to apply
a rubber ring (or band) to the tail using an elastrator tool. Banding
is a bloodless method of tail docking. The band cuts off the
blood supply to the tail, causing the tail to fall off in 7 to 10 days.
Some producers cut the tail off before it falls off to prevent
Banding causes some pain to the lamb, but the pain is short-lived.
Pain can be reduced if a clamp is applied across the tail immediately
distal to the ring. The use of a local anesthetic, such as lidocaine,
can be used to reduce the pain felt by the lamb. However, this
is not usually practical as lidocaine is not available for purchase
over-the-counter. Only veterinarians may prescribe the use of lidocaine.
Lambs should be at least 24 hours old before bands are applied,
and bands should only be applied during the lamb's first week
of life. There is a law in the United Kingdom that restricts
banding to the first week of a lamb's life. Though not mandated, producers in the U.S. and other countries are encouraged to follow this practice.
When bands are used to dock tails, it is very important
that lambs be protected against tetanus (lockjaw), as the
rubber ring creates an anaerobic (without oxygen) environment that is favorable
to the tetanus organism.
If the lamb's dam was not vaccinated or her vaccination status
is unknown, the tetanus anti-toxin should be administered at
the time of tail docking. The anti-toxin provides immediate
short-term immunity whereas tetanus toxoid, while longer
lasting, takes 10 days to 2 weeks to elicit any immune response.
Other tail docking methods
An electric docking iron cuts and cauterizes the tail simultaneously
and is probably the most humane method of tail docking. It can
be used on older lambs.
An emasculator has both a cutting and crushing mechanism. It can be used for tail docking. The crushing mechanism seals the blood
vessels on the tail remaining on the lamb, while the cutting edge
effectively removes the tail. The emasculator should be left on
the tail for approximately 30 seconds to help prevent bleeding.
A Burdizzo is similar to an emasculator except it does not have
a cutting mechanism. A knife must be used to cut off the tail
(inside the Burdizzo). A "baby" (9 in.) burdizzo should
be used for lambs.
Tails can also be cut off using a knife; however, this technique
is not recommended because it can cause excessive bleeding. Nor is it humane.
There is disagreement with regards to how long the
docked tail should be. In the United Kingdom, it is a law that
the tail stub (dock) be left long enough to cover the ewe's vulva
and ram's anus. Most other countries follow similar practices.
The American Veterinary Medical Association, American Association
of Small Ruminant Practitioners, and American Sheep Industry Association
recommend that tails be removed no shorter than the distal
end of the caudal tail fold. Tails docked shorter than this may
result in an increased incidence of rectal prolapses among lambs
fed concentrate diets. This is because short-tail docking damages
the muscles and nerves used by the lamb's anus.
Ultra-short tail docking may also contribute to the incidence
of vaginal prolapses, though there is no research data to support
this claim. However, New Zealand researchers found that short-docked
ewes suffered higher rates of carcinoma of the vulva.
All lambs should be docked by the time they are 6 weeks old,
regardless of the method used. If older lambs and mature sheep
are to be docked, the procedure should be performed by a veterinarian using general anesthesia.
Though banded lambs are most vulnerable, immunity from tetanus
is recommended for all docking methods.
The need for castration is based on the management
of the farm and demands of the market place. Ram
lambs grow faster than ewe and wether lambs and when ram lambs
are marketed at a young age (less than 6 months), commercial lamb buyers usually do not discriminate in price. Ethnic lamb buyers
often prefer intact (ore entire) males and may pay a premium for them.
Rams are almost always preferred for the Muslim Festival of Sacrifice.
It is usually not necessary to castrate ram lambs for the freezer (or
locker) trade or when selling lamb directly to consumers, as there is no siginificant difference in the taste or
tenderness of the meat from a young ram lamb versus a wether or
ewe lamb. Older rams may have a slight taste difference.
During harvest, it is more difficult to remove the pelt (skin) from a ram lamb, especially one that has started to develop secondary sex characteristics. Ram lambs that cannot be marketed by the time they are six months old should be castrated.
On the other hand, wether lambs are easier to manage and eliminate
the possibilities of early and/or unwanted pregnancies. When ram lambs
are kept intact, it is necessary to wean and separate them from their dams and female pen (or pasture) mates by the time they are 4 months
of age. If this cannot be done, ram lambs should be castrated.
Male lambs sold for grazing or as pets should be castrated as
they will be easier to manage.
As with tail docking, there are many techniques that
can be used to castrate ram lambs. An elastrator band can be
placed around the neck of the lamb's scrotum. Care should be taken not to place the band over the lamb's rudimentary teats. Banding will cause the
scrotum to shrivel up and fall off in two to three weeks.
As with docking, the scrotum may be removed after a few days.
Both testicles must be below the placement of the band. If one
testicle is missed, it will be retained in the belly cavity,
resulting in a "bucky" lamb.
Castration by banding causes some pain to the lamb, but the pain is short-lived. Lambs should be castrated at a young age, preferably between 1 and 7 days of age. As with tail docking, pain can be reduced
if a clamp is applied immediately before or after application
of the ring.
Some veterinarians advocate the use of lidocaine
to reduce the pain felt by the lamb; however, lidocaine is not
available for purchase over-the-counter. As with banding tails,
lambs should be protected against tetanus via passive immunity
or use of the tetanus anti-toxin at the time of castration.
The testicles may be surgically removed. With this method, a sharp knife or scalpel
is used to remove the bottom one-third of the scrotal sac. The
testicles are removed and the wound is allowed to drain and
It is essential that proper aseptic technique be used when the
surgical method of castration is used.
According to research conducted in Great Britain, surgical castration
is the most painful method of castration as lambs surgically castrated have higher amounts of cortisol in their bloodstream as compared to lambs castrated using other methods. Surgical castration also has the greatest potential for infection and fly infestation.
Surgical castration should only be done before or after fly season.
A Burdizzo emasculatome is a tool that is used to crush the spermatic
cord, which crushes the blood vessels, thus depriving the testicles
of blood supply and causing them to shrivel up and die. The Burdizzo
does not break the skin. Each cord should be crushed separately.
The cattle-size Burdizzo should not be used to castrate lambs.
There is an "All-in-One" tool that can be used to
perform surgical castrations. The teeth of the All-in-One tool
are used to grab the testicles after cutting off the bottom
one third of the scrotum with the scissors portion of the tool.
So far, chemical castration has not proven to be effective or
Lambs should be castrated by the time they are six weeks of
age, regardless of the method used. In the United Kingdom, veterinarians
must perform all castrations in ram lambs over 3 months of age.
Though banded lambs are most vulnerable, immunity from tetanus
is recommended for all castration methods.
Less pain is associated with making a short scrotum ram versus
a wether lamb. A short scrotum is a ram whose testicles have been
pushed up into the body cavity and had its scrotum removed. Short
scrotum rams are superior in performance to both wether and intact
Mutilation or routine husbandry practice?
It is important to realize that some people consider tail docking
and castration to be animal "mutilation." In fact, the Humane
Society of the United States seeks to ban tail docking and other
routine animal husbandry practices.
Efforts to ban tail docking and similar animal husbandry practices
are usually based on emotion and are not supported by science
or reason. At the same time, all producers need to make sure
they perform these practices in the most humane way possible.
Some producers may find that it is not necessary to dock and/or
castrate their lambs. In New Zealand, they are attempting to breed sheep that do not require tail docking.
article: The Welfare of Docking and Castrating =>
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