When to wean?
2 ½ weeks into lactation
60 days old
Weaning is a crucial time in the management of ewes and lambs.
It is the practice of removing from lambs the milk diet provided
by the ewe (or a milk replacement diet). From the milk diet, lambs
are moved onto forage or grain-based diets. The separation can
be stressful for both ewes and lambs. Minimizing stress and easing the transition are important goals at weaning.
When to wean
Weaning age varies greatly in the sheep industry and depends upon
many factors including availability of pasture and other feed
supplies and target market. Lambs have been weaned successfully as early as 14 days, while some lambs are allowed to wean naturally, staying with their dams for six months or more.
In fact, some lambs are sent to market at the same time they are weaned.
Early in life, the lamb cannot digest anything but milk. However,
by 3 weeks of age, the developing rumen makes the lamb more efficient
at converting feed than the ewe. Typically, the ewe's milk production peaks 3 to
4 weeks after lambing and steadily declines to about half as much
by 10 weeks. About 74 percent of all milk is produced in the first
8 weeks of lactation.
Early weaning is a relative term, but implies weaning at any time
after 14 days of age, but usually before 90 days. Sixty (60) days
is a common weaning age in intensively managed sheep operations. It is common to wean lambs in a dairy sheep operation when they are 30 to 35 days of age.
Early weaning can be successful, provided lambs are drinking water
and consuming adequate amounts of dry feed.
Creep feeding is part of most weaning programs. The size of the
lamb at weaning is generally more important than its actual age.
As a rule of thumb, most lambs can be weaned at 60 days of age
or 45 pounds, whichever comes first (though this will vary by
breed). Another rule of thumb is two times the birth weight of the lamb.
Early weaning offers many advantages. Weaned lambs are very efficient
converters of feed to lean tissue. It is usually more efficient to feed grain to lambs than ewes because
lambs will convert feed to gain more efficiently than the ewes
can convert the feed to milk to lamb gain. Early weaning eases
the lactation stress of high-producing ewes. It allows ewes to
return to breeding condition earlier, which is essential for accelerated
Weaning lambs early and placing them in a feed lot for finishing
saves pasture and enables the producer to maintain more ewes on
a given amount of pasture. In drought years, it is common to wean
lambs early (60-90 days).
With early weaning, cull ewes can be sold earlier, sometimes for
higher prices. Lambs are usually marketed earlier in the year, when prices
may be higher. However, early weaning is more stressful
to both the ewe and lambs. Ewes are more prone to mastitis because
they are still producing milk when their lambs are removed.
Early weaning should always be the goal with artificially reared lambs. Artificially-reared
lambs can be successfully weaned from a milk diet at 25 to 30
pounds body weight or when they are 30 to 45 days old. Weaning
abruptly is better than offering a diluted milk replacer the last
week. However, orphan lambs should not be weaned unless they are
drinking water and consuming solid food.
In a natural situation, weaning occurs at approximately 6 months
of age, usually in the fall when the ewes begin returning to estrus. Spring-born
lambs are often weaned later than winter-born and fall-born lambs.
In fact, it is not uncommon to leave spring-born lambs with their
dams on pasture until they are ready for market.
There are several advantages to late weaning. It is more "natural"
and results in less stress for the ewe and lambs. There is less
risk of the ewe developing mastitis since her milk production
has declined significantly by the time the lambs are removed. Late
weaning allows the producer to take advantage of available forage
Pasture gains can be more economical than those achieved
in a feed lot situation. On the other hand, lambs must compete
with ewes for the available forage. They are also more likely to become
infected with infective worm larvae. They are exposed to more disease-causing agents. Predator problems are usually
greater in late weaning, pasture-rearing environments. If male
lambs will be left with their dams past 3 to 4 months of age,
they should be castrated. Castrated rams do not grow as fast as
A comparison of early vs. late weaning
than 90 days)
than 120 days)
|It is not necessary to castrate
It is more efficient to feed grain to lambs than ewes.
It eases lactation stress of prolific ewes
It allows ewes to return to breeding condition earlier.
Cull ewes can be sold earlier.
Lambs can usually be marketed earlier.
Pasture is saved for ewes.
More ewes can be maintained on farm.
|It is more natural.
Lambs and ewes are less stressed.
There is less risk of mastitis.
It requires less pens and/or pasture fields.
It takes advantage of available forage.
Pasture gains may be more economical than feedlot gains.
|However . . .
It is more stressful to lambs and
Ewes are more prone to mastitis.
Extra pens and/or pasture fields are needed.
|However . . .
Lambs have to compete for the same pasture as ewes.
Lambs are more likely to become infected with worm larvae.
Lambs are exposed to more disease agents.
Predator losses could be higher.
Ram lambs need to be castrated.
The main concern at weaning time for ewes is to prevent mastitis
problems. Ewes with mastitis have reduced or no production value
in future years. The easiest way to prevent mastitis is to halt
milk production. Approximately two weeks before weaning, grain
should be removed from the ewe's diet. If possible, you should
feed a low quality forage prior to weaning. Feeding straw the
last 2 to 3 days before weaning further shuts down lactation.
After weaning, ewes should be maintained on low quality feed for
3 to 7 days to assist ewes in drying up. Some producers withhold
or restrict water intake before and after weaning. However, removing
water from the ewe's diet during hot weather can be dangerous
and is not recommended.
You should not turn ewes out to pasture immediately after weaning
them. Spring grass is high in protein, water, and other nutrients
which promote milk production.
Generally, weaning time is more stressful for lambs than ewes.
At weaning, the lambs are challenged not only by being separated
from their mother, but also by their need to fend for themselves
nutritionally. Their immune systems are not fully developed,
and they are more susceptible to disease.
You should not drastically change the lamb's ration for two
weeks before to two weeks after weaning. When weaning, the ewes
should be removed from the lambs, not vice versa. By leaving
lambs in the same location, they will experience less stress
and are less likely to go off feed because they will know where
the feeders, minerals, and water are.
It has generally recommended that ewes and lambs are far enough
apart that they can't hear each other. It's important to maintain
the same groupings during weaning, e.g. keep siblings together.
Newly weaned lambs should have plenty of clean, fresh water
at all times. Keep the lambs on the same feed before and after
weaning until the stress of weaning has pasted (7-10 days).
Feeds containing urea should not be fed for at least 2 weeks
Lambs weaned at 10 weeks of age will recognize and return to
their dams after 2 months of separation. After weaning, twins
will stay together for the first few days.
Newly weaned lambs should be closely monitored for health problems.
Coccidiosis is most common in weanling lambs. Enterotoxemia
(overeating disease type D) is more common in early weaned lambs.
It can be prevented with vaccination. Lambs from vaccinated
dams should receive their first vaccination for type D at approximately
10 weeks of age, followed by a booster 2 to 4 weeks later.
Low stress weaning
Creep feeding reduces the stress of weaning. With cattle, the
stress of weaning has been reduced by allowing the cow and calf
to have fence line contact. An Australian company (www.easywean.com.au)
markets a "nose ring" or anti-sucking device that prevents
lambs from nursing (the ewe rejects attempts to suckle), which
dries up the ewe's lactation while maintaining the maternal
bond and allowing ewes and lambs to be managed as a single mob.
The ring is a plastic device that clips into the partition between
the lamb's nostrils. It should stay on for 2 weeks to allow
the ewe's lactation to dry up. The rings are reusable and 90
percent effective. They reduce weaning stress and enhance animal
performance. They do not prevent the lamb from grazing.
Lambs should be weighed at weaning in order to calculate
adjusted weaning weights. Lambs with the highest adjusted
weaning weights should be retained for breeding. Ewes that wean
the heaviest litters will make the most money and should be
favored in breeding and selection decisions.